Electric furnace has special advantages compared to other steel making methods. Electric furnace is heated by arc, the temperature can reach 2000℃, and much higher than other steel making furnace which heated by common fuel. Meanwhile, Most of the heat of the melting furnace is generated when the furnace is surrounded by the heated furnace, and there is no heat loss caused by the large amount of high temperature waste gas, so the thermal efficiency is much higher than converter and open hearth furnace. Also Temperature can be controlled exactly when heated by electricity. Since there is no combustible gas in the furnace, it can be heated in various atmospheres according to the process requirements, or in any pressure or vacuum. As EAF steel making has the characteristics mentioned above, it can guarantee the smelting of high quality steel with low phosphorus, sulfur and oxygen content, and can use various elements to alloying the steel and smelting out various types of high quality steel and alloy steel.
Another advantage of EAF steel making is less capital investment, small footprint, short process and high efficiency. In particular, compared to the converter, it can use scrap steel as raw material, unlike the converter, it does not require hot iron water, so there is no need for a large iron and coking system.
In the long term, the cost of electricity is stable and the supply is convenient; Arc furnace equipment is simple, and easy to operate; also good for controlling pollution. This shows, arc furnace steel making is much more better, therefore, all countries in the world are developing the pure oxygen top blowing converter, also steadily developing the EAF steel making technology. Current arc furnace development trend: Develop large EAF; develop powder-supply technology for ultra-high power; use various outside refining methods; developing direct reduction process steel making, gradually expanding automation, mechanization and process controlled by computer.
At present, electric furnace steel accounts for about 35% of crude steel worldwide, our national only have 15-16%, we have big development space.